__Purpose:__

**The purpose of this lab was to find the ratio at which the most reactants were used ,and also the one which produced the greatest amount of product, heat.**

__data Tables:__

mL NaClO010 20 30 40 50 |
mL "Solution B"50 40 30 20 10 0 |
Initial Temp.21.75 °C21.75 °C 21.75 °C 21.75 °C 21.75 °C 21.75 °C |
Ending Temp. 21.75 °C 26.50 °C 31.00 °C 36.50 °C 41.50 °C 21.75 °C |
∆T(°C)0.0 °C4.75 °C 9.25 °C 14.75 °C 19.75 °C 0.0 °C |

__Graphs:__

__ConClusion:__

**The data , which provided qauntitative data, and the graph, which provided visual data ,were both reviewed in orderm to find the optimim ratio. Both the graph and the table supportd eachother in regards to the optimum ratio being 4:1; 40 mL NaClO- sodium hypochlorite- and 10 mL Solution "B"- Sodium thiosulfate. In order for the largest amount of reactants to be used and the the greatest amount of products produced, stoichiometric ratio, to be formed, the mole to mole ratio for the reactants in the reaction needs to be⁞ 4NaClO + 1Na2S203 → Products.**

__Discussion of Theory:__

**T**

**he lab procedure allowed for the provision of the optimum ratio; which consumes the greatest amount of reactants and the greatest amount of products were produced, and was found by the method of continued variations. The method of continued variations allows for the optimum ratio to be found by testing different ratios of reactants and their corresponding products, but always keeping the same totality of moles: In example mole ratios were 4:1, 0:5, 2:3, ect., but the entirety of the moles on the reactant side remained 5. Since it was the temperature, or heat produced, that was being measured, the temperature change between the initial temperature ( the average between the temperature of each individual reactant) and the one recorded from the reaction with the corresponding mole ratio was taken. The change was then recorded on a graph in accordance to their corresponding ratios. Best-fit-lines were made on each side of the graph; their intersection marked the highest temperature change and the optimum ratio of the reaction.**

__Analysis Questions:__

**1) It was important to keep the volume constant in order to prevent the amount of volume from influencing the amount of product produced. Also, by keeping the volume constant, the exact mole to mole ration of the reactants can be identified without needing to perform calculations in excess.**

2) The term “limiting reagent”identified the reactant which was used up completely in the reaction as well as the one that controlled the amount of product produced.

3) The volume was the factor that limited the precision of the data. The volume was the independent factor while the temperature was the dependent factor. The volume being kept constant allowed the output values (temperature) to be kept close in range in relation to each other. If different values for the volume would have been used, the outputs would have had no relation to each other.

4) The limiting reagent along the upward slope line on the graph was the NaClO, on the downward slope line on the graph the limiting reagent was “Solution B”, which in the present case was Sodium Thiosulfate.

5) The method of continued variations could have also been used for measuring the intensity of a color, the mass of a formed precipitate, the volume of a created gas, or the physical properties of water.

6) It was more accurate to use the point of intersection of the two lines rather than the ratio associated with the greatest temperature, because the greatest amount of product produced needed to be formed from the greatest amount of reactants. Also, not every ratio was tested, therefore it more accurate to use an intersection because both lines are a best-fit-line for the set of data.

2) The term “limiting reagent”identified the reactant which was used up completely in the reaction as well as the one that controlled the amount of product produced.

3) The volume was the factor that limited the precision of the data. The volume was the independent factor while the temperature was the dependent factor. The volume being kept constant allowed the output values (temperature) to be kept close in range in relation to each other. If different values for the volume would have been used, the outputs would have had no relation to each other.

4) The limiting reagent along the upward slope line on the graph was the NaClO, on the downward slope line on the graph the limiting reagent was “Solution B”, which in the present case was Sodium Thiosulfate.

5) The method of continued variations could have also been used for measuring the intensity of a color, the mass of a formed precipitate, the volume of a created gas, or the physical properties of water.

6) It was more accurate to use the point of intersection of the two lines rather than the ratio associated with the greatest temperature, because the greatest amount of product produced needed to be formed from the greatest amount of reactants. Also, not every ratio was tested, therefore it more accurate to use an intersection because both lines are a best-fit-line for the set of data.

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